Wednesday, January 13, 2010

Curriculum Approaches

Please Discuss the following Approaches to Curriculum:

Aimee : Technical - Scientific approach
Kathleen : Behavioral - rational approach
Khristine : Systems - Managerial approach
Lovely : Humanistic - aesthetic approach
Hydia : Non - technical/Non-scientific approach
Ira : Intellectual - academic approach
Mark : Eclectic Models

I encourage you to ask questions from your classmates as regards to their assigned topic for further clarification.

Thanks and Happy discussion.



  1. Technical-scientific approach in curriculum development is a step-by-step approach in designing a curriculum which Tyler formed and modified by Taba. Its first step is to diagnose the need for improvement; 2nd: the formulation of objectives; 3rd: specification of content; 4th: organization of content; 5th: selection of learning experiences; 6th: organization of learning experiences; 7th: evaluation and means of evaluation. Taba also included Teachers as the primary curriculum developers. This is called a technical-scientific approach because it is as if we are experimenting in a laboratory - forming an objective, using a step-by-step approach in getting the outcome, and finally evaluating if the solution is really applicable to real situations. Based on my research, they used the term Outcome-based Education (OBE) because they organize the results based on the outcomes that they want to achieve. They first start by determining the knowledge, competencies, and qualities that their students want to demonstrate when they finish school and face challenges and opportunities of the adult world. OBE is said to be a way of planning, releasing, and recording instruction in terms of its intended goals in-lined with its outcome.

    Abraham Harold Maslow, an American psychologist, developed the theory of humanistic theories of self actualization. According to him, every individual has a strong desire to realize his full potential, to reach a level of self-actualization. A person, especially a child, learns because he is driven inwardly and derives his reward from the sense of achievement. Intrinsic rewards are rewards from within oneself and this accord with the humanistic approach where education is really about creating a need within a child, thus instilling self-motivation. Humanism is about rewarding one's self.

    - Student-centered teaching
    - Social personal development
    - Performance oriented
    - Discovery learning
    - Respect’s student learning and aspirations

    3 MAIN APPROACHES OF HUMANISTIC APPROACH based on Kirschenbaum 1975:
    1. Humanistic content curricula – teaching topics that are directly relevant to students’ lives
    2. Humanistic process curricula – focuses on the whole student and can include teaching assertiveness training
    3. Humanistic school and group structures – restructuring the whole timetable and school environment in order to facilitate humanistic teaching or just individual cases. The approach includes:
    a. On a school level – open classrooms, class meetings, and finding alternative ways of assessments
    b. On a class level – students exercise choice and control over activities; curriculum focuses on what the children are concerned about; focus on life skills (thinking skills combined with social skills); self-evaluation and self-monitoring; teacher becomes a facilitator

    1. Affect – emphasis on thinking and feeling
    2. Self-concept – positive, disinvited students
    3. Communication – positive and honest
    4. Personal values – facilitate the development of positive values; must know themselves, express themselves, self-identity and actualize themselves

  3. Behavioral approach These types of objective indicate the specific behaviors students must demonstrate to indicate that learning has occurred.

  4. guys, where the the inputs of others?????

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  6. Curriculum plays vital role in school system. It can give the school a unique identity. In fact there is no doubt that curriculum affect the teacher, school administrator, student and society. If we will carefully examine the nature of curriculum we will find that they are dynamic and broad. It becomes dynamic because it has several approaches. Each approach reflects ones perspective, belief, value and knowledge. A curriculum approach reflects school belief and a foundation of teaching strategies.

    There is several curriculum approach (which my other classmate have already discussed) can be use by the school. Their curriculum approach may be rooted from the school philosophies. This curriculum approach has pro and cons nevertheless they will still hold to their approach. Their teaching strategies will always align to the curriculum approach.

    Some school tends to commit several approaches. They want to address the students’ needs. Their decision to commit several approaches may be influence by the parents. In my perspective as much a possible our parents want to give us the best education. The school can addressed this goal by selecting a different curriculum approach which it is tailor fit of the student’s needs.

    Come to think of it this kind of approach might actually work. They can strengthen the curriculum by selecting desirable curriculum approach. But there is a danger in doing this. One of the dangers that the school should look out is the inconsistency. To further understand this here is the example; the school believes that the person has freedom of choice (existentialism/humanistic) and they also believe that peoples behavior can be reliably manipulate by certain technique (behaviorism). You can’t combine this two believe. There will be inconsistency that leads to confusion for the teacher. Formulating curriculum under eclectic approach is an extremely difficult process because there have to considered if the curriculum has holistic position. The role of the curriculum supervisor/consultant is to carefully select the curriculum approach. If the school decides to go to eclectic approach they must make sure that it fit into consistency system.

  7. Intellectual approach- the goal of this design is to increase learning efficiency and the transfer of problem-solving skills to other content areas and life experiences. The focus is on the development of cognitive processes.

    The least frequently represented curriculum design deals with the development of cognitive processes. This design makes the development of either cognitive processes such as critical thinking and problem solving or human processes and traits such as creativity and self-confidence the focus of curriculum, rather than a structured discipline or a sequenced task. Emphasis on processes has recently been increased through current research on students' cognition and metacognition. The emphasis in this design is on such processes as problem solving, first, and then on the context and content of the learning situation. Current research about cognition reveals the importance of the context and content of the activity, in addition to factors associated with the student such as prior knowledge with respect to intellectual processes.
    Clear-cut examples of process curricula are difficult to identify. Recent thinking skills curricula which have been developed as separate courses or as subject-matter-specific programs in the social studies and language arts are the best examples of curriculum which are designed with a clear focus on intellectual processes to the exclusion (or relegation to lesser consideration) of content. In technology education, examples of intellectual processes curriculum designs often appear in design courses. In these courses, the instructor identifies a problem solving model as the basis of subject matter and particular activities related to industry and technology for improving or teaching about critical thinking and problem solving.

    Academic approach tend to focus on a body of knowledge which is grouped into disciplines, subject matter, or broad fields. It is a familiar pattern of organization that is evident in the way in which knowledge is organized for course work in most schools. Besides being a means of designing curriculum, the academic design carries with it the message that knowledge is organized into logical categories and that values can be attached to those categories. Selected content, such as the basic subjects in the liberal arts, is held to be the central purpose of schooling and the curriculum. These subjects, through a disciplinary organization of content, focus the curriculum. Often, academic rationalism as an ideology influences issues in education such as the "back to the basics" movement. Those who promote these designs identify particular subject matter which is designed to transmit the heritage of a culture through literature, history, science, and other fundamental disciplines.

  8. Managerial Approach
    • Curriculum planned in terms of programs, schedules, space, resources and equipment, and personnel.
    • Committee/group process, human relations, leadership styles and methods, and decision- making are considered.
    • Relies on a plan, rational principles, logical steps.
    • Focuses on supervisory and administrative aspects of curriculum.
    Systems Approach
    • Influenced by systems theory, systems analysis, and systems engineering.
    • Used extensively by the military, government and business.
    • Brings together components of planning, programming, and budgeting.